Tech debt in startups – cloud based POV

Tech debt, a term coined by Ward Cunningham, refers to the compromise made between swift development and long-term sustainability. When startups prioritize speed, they accumulate tech debt, which can lead to decreased productivity, increased development costs, and even project failures.

Signs of tech debt accumulation

1. Increasing development time

One of the most apparent signs of tech debt accumulation is a steady increase in development time. When your development team is consistently taking longer to implement new features or fix bugs, it’s a strong indicator that something is amiss. This prolonged development time may result from developers struggling to work with poorly designed or overly complex code, a hallmark of tech debt.

2. Frequent crashes and bugs

Frequent system crashes, software bugs, and unexpected errors are clear red flags of tech debt. When your software becomes increasingly unstable and unreliable, it not only frustrates users but also erodes trust in your product. These issues often stem from neglected code quality, lack of proper testing, or outdated dependencies.

3. Growing backlog of issues

A growing backlog of unresolved issues is another sign that tech debt is accumulating. As technical debt accrues, more problems arise, and the list of pending tasks continues to expand. This backlog can become overwhelming, making it challenging to prioritize and address critical issues effectively.

4. Declining code quality metrics

Monitoring code quality metrics is essential to detect tech debt accumulation. Metrics like code complexity, code duplication, and code coverage can provide insights into the health of your codebase. A deterioration in these metrics indicates that your code is becoming harder to maintain and more prone to issues.

5. Difficulty in onboarding new developers

When it becomes increasingly challenging to onboard new developers and bring them up to speed quickly, it’s a sign that your codebase may be suffering from tech debt. Well-structured code should be easy for new team members to understand and contribute to. Tech debt can make the learning curve steeper and hinder productivity

Short-term gains vs. long-term consequences of tech debt in startups

The allure of tech debt lies in its promise of immediate results. It might seem like a shortcut to meet tight deadlines or deliver new features promptly. However, beneath the surface, these shortcuts can lead to a cascade of problems:

  1. Accumulated Complexity: Each shortcut added to the codebase contributes to its complexity, making it harder to understand and maintain.
  2. Reduced Productivity: As technical debt mounts, development teams spend more time grappling with existing issues than creating new features or improvements.
  3. Increased Costs: Fixing issues caused by tech debt down the road can be significantly more expensive than addressing them during development.
  4. End-User Frustration: Bugs and glitches resulting from tech debt can erode user trust and satisfaction, damaging your brand’s reputation.

How tech debt is incurred?

  1. Hasty decision-making

In the race to stay ahead, developers often make hurried decisions to ship products faster. These decisions might include:

  • Ignoring best practices
  • Skipping testing phases
  • Neglecting documentation
  • Overlooking code reviews

Each of these actions, though tempting in the short term, contributes to the ever-growing burden of tech debt.

2. Inadequate planning

Tech debt can also accrue when there’s a lack of comprehensive planning in the development process. Failure to consider scalability, future-proofing, and the evolving needs of your application can result in subpar code that quickly becomes outdated.

3. Ignoring code quality

Developers might prioritize quantity over quality, writing code that barely gets the job done. This disregard for code quality can lead to a fragile system that breaks easily and is challenging to maintain.

Why avoiding tech debt is crucial?

Long-term sustainability

A tech debt-free codebase paves the way for long-term sustainability. When code is clean, well-documented, and follows best practices, future enhancements and updates become more manageable. This ensures that your application can adapt and grow with your business needs.

Enhanced productivity

A clean codebase is like a well-organized library where finding a book is a breeze. This ease of navigation enhances developer productivity, as they spend less time deciphering code and more time creating value-added features.

Cost savings

The old adage, “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure,” holds true in the world of tech debt. Addressing issues promptly and maintaining a high code quality standard saves significant costs in the long run, compared to tackling a mountain of debt.

Improved user experience

Your users are the lifeblood of your digital presence. Avoiding tech debt means fewer bugs, less downtime, and a smoother user experience. Happy users are more likely to become loyal customers and advocates for your brand.

Is it possible to fix tech debt in startups?

Yes. Not only possible, but also crucial for maintaining a healthy and sustainable software development process. Here, we’ll explore the various strategies and approaches that can be employed to effectively fix tech debt.

  1. Prioritization: The first step in addressing tech debt is to identify and prioritize it. Not all tech debt is created equal, and some issues may have a more significant impact on your system than others. It’s essential to assess the severity and potential consequences of each debt item before tackling them.
  2. Dedicated time and resources: Allocating dedicated time and resources to address tech debt is essential. This might mean setting aside specific sprints or development cycles for debt reduction or assigning a team responsible for managing and fixing tech debt.
  3. Refactoring: Refactoring is the process of restructuring existing code without changing its external behavior. It’s a powerful technique for improving code quality and eliminating tech debt. Developers can clean up code, remove duplication, and enhance readability through systematic refactoring.
  4. Automated testing: Implementing automated testing, such as unit tests and integration tests, can help catch and prevent regressions when fixing tech debt. It provides a safety net that ensures new changes don’t reintroduce old issues.
  5. Code reviews: Enforcing rigorous code reviews can help identify and address tech debt as part of the development process. Experienced developers can spot potential issues and suggest improvements during code review sessions.
  6. Documentation: Comprehensive documentation is invaluable when addressing tech debt. It aids in understanding the existing codebase and makes it easier for developers to identify areas that need improvement.
  7. Continuous Integration and Continuous Deployment (CI/CD): Implementing CI/CD pipelines can automate the testing and deployment process, ensuring that changes are thoroughly tested before they reach production. This reduces the risk of introducing new tech debt.

Success stories of companies overcoming Tech Debt

Netflix: Netflix migrated from a traditional data center infrastructure to a cloud-based environment, facing considerable tech debt in the process. They introduced tools like Chaos Monkey, Simian Army, and Conformity Monkey to proactively identify and address issues. By automating the detection and resolution of tech debt, they improved system reliability and scalability.

Spotify: Spotify is known for its agile approach to development, but they too faced tech debt issues as they expanded. They adopted a “Guilds and Tribes” structure to address tech debt, allowing teams to allocate time specifically for addressing it. This approach helped them manage tech debt while continuing to deliver new features.

Lesson Learned: Implement automated processes for identifying and addressing tech debt continuously.


Many messed-up systems are created because developers aren’t allowed to do their jobs properly. They’re controlled too much by people who don’t understand IT money and engineering. To avoid technical debt, we should follow basic software rules. If we don’t, our technical problems will come back to hurt us and cost much more than what we saved by cutting corners.

FAQs: Tech debt and cloud migration

  1. How can startups identify tech debt in their systems?
    • Learn to recognize tech debt through code reviews, monitoring technical debt metrics, and conducting regular audits.
  2. What are the benefits of migrating to the cloud for tech debt reduction?
    • Cloud migration offers scalability, cost savings, and modernization opportunities, making it an effective solution for addressing tech debt.
  3. How long does the cloud migration process typically take for startups?
    • The duration varies depending on factors like the size of the infrastructure and complexity of the applications. On average, it can take several months.
  4. Are there tools available to help startups manage tech debt during migration?
    • Yes, numerous tools and platforms, such as code analysis tools and cloud migration services, can aid startups in managing tech debt during migration.

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